Vitalii Lozovyі


Full text (pdf)
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract. This article is dedicated to identifying the primary trends in the Russian government’s policy regarding school education in the temporarily occupied territories (TOT) of Ukraine during the period of full-scale military aggression in 2022–2023. It is noted that after the occupation of part of the Ukrainian territories, the kremlin’s efforts have been focused on incorporating them into the russian federation. The main task of the russian occupational authorities’ educational policy in the TOT of Ukraine is to forcibly integrate Ukrainian children and youth into the “russian dimension”. Proclaiming the program for the so-called “denazification of the educational system”, the russian authorities have changed the language of instruction, replacing Ukrainian with russian and adjusted the curricula to align with a russian narrative. The new textbook on russian history, which is being studied by schoolchildren in the occupied regions of Ukraine from September 1, 2023, was analyzed. We observed that the section of the textbook discussing the russian-Ukrainian war repeats putin’s propaganda narratives related to a full-scale invasion. Since moscow’s historical policy in the occupied territories puts the victory in the Second World War at its center, aggression in Ukraine is being presented as a fight against “Ukrainian Nazism”, using a narrative similar to that of the liberation mission from 1941–1945. It was found that in order to eliminate Ukrainian identity, re-education programmes were introduced to instil in Ukrainian children a “universal russian identity”. An essential feature of russian policy is the militarization of the education of children and youth. Centers of paramilitary children’s organizations spread significantly in TOT. Under the guise of “national and patriotic education”, children are being prepared to participate in the war on the side of russia. An important direction of activity of the russian occupiers is to convince Ukrainian teachers to cooperate, arrange retraining courses, and, in the event of a lack of Ukrainian teachers, bring teachers from russia and Crimea to educate in the occupied territories. It was concluded that school education and upbringing are used by the russian authorities for anti-Ukrainian ideological processing of children and youth.
Keywords: temporarily occupied territories, russian politics, school education, children and youth, identity, full-scale war.

1. Gridina, I. (2016). The educational component of the war in the East of Ukraine. Herald of Mariupol State University. Series: History. Political science, 16, 199-208. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].
2. Khomenko, O. (2016). A long tunnel with no light at the end: a secondary school in the ‘people’s republics’ in the first year of the Russian-Ukrainian war. Ukrainian Studies, 2(59), 8-17. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].
3. Honchar, M. (2023). Education policy of the russian administration in the occupied Kherson region (end of February–October 2022). Studies in Comparative Education, 2. DOI:
4. Nazarenko, Yu., Kohut, I., & Zherobkina, T. (2022). Education in the occupied territories of Ukraine (February 24 – April 30, 2022). Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].
5. Vaskivska, N., Korniienko, K., Pidhorna, D., & Petrovets, M. (2023). School education: russia’s hidden weapon against Ukraine. Kyiv. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].
6. Deina, A. (2022). Occupants stole about 22 thousand textbooks on the history of Ukraine from schools in Luhansk region – “Opora”. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].
7. Berest, M. (2023). Ukrainian or russian: which language do Ukrainians consider their mother tongue? Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].
8. ОstroV. (2023). The occupiers opened a “Cossack cadet corps” on the basis of a vocational school in Starobilsk, where local collaborators “teach”. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].
9. Azarov, D., Koval, D., Nuridzhanian, G., & Venher, V. (2023). Understanding russia’s actions in Ukraine as the crime of genocide. NaUKMA Research Papers. Series: Law, 11, 12-39. DOI: [in Ukrainian].
10. RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. (2022). Few pupils, fewer teachers: russia struggles to set up ‘potemkin’ schools in occupied Ukraine. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].
11. Nesterenko, А. (n. d.). Cultural genocide: who is introducing russian education into Ukraine’s occupied territories and how. Institute of Mass Information. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].