Maryna Lyesnikova


Full text (pdf)
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract. Because of the full-scale invasion of the russian federation, Ukraine has suffered and will suffer significant damage to infrastructure, the rehabilitation of which will require highly qualified personnel, especially skilled workers. Despite the high demand in the labor market for skilled workers in Ukraine, only 15% of youth among the 9th-grade graduates of general secondary education institutions choose vocational education and training (VET) institutions. Such a discouraging trend is explained by the low popularization of VET among the youth of Ukraine, caused by the imperfect system of vocational guidance and professional counselling of student youth. The article is aimed at studying the best practices of EU countries on the popularization of VET among young people and describing steps to increase it in Ukraine. In our view, the popularization of VET is an opportunity to encourage young people and adults to choose VET by offering them high-quality qualifications that open up career prospects and a decent salary. The best practices in countries such as Serbia, Croatia, the Czech Republic and Slovenia, where the proportion of high school students preferring VET is highest, shows that effective career guidance and counselling systems exist in these countries, using an individual approach to each individual. Since 2021, the government of Ukraine launched a large-scale campaign to popularize VET, aimed at increasing the attractiveness of VET and changing the approach to career guidance among schoolchildren, as a result of which in 2021 compared to the previous year, the number of students enrolled in VET has increased. Also, a positive trend is this year’s increase in the number of regional applications for the training of workers and specialists in regions remote from the combat zone. However, the low popularization of VET among young people remains a challenge. The main ways to address this problem are the introduction of effective career guidance and counselling system; the establishment of regional career guidance centres; the introduction of a career counsellor in VET institutions; maximum involvement of business in the popularization of labor professions, etc. During the period of martial law in Ukraine, the VET will play a strategic role in providing our country with labor force.
Keywords: vocational education and training, popularization, skilled workers, professional orientation, European experience, career counseling, public opinion survey.

1. KSE Institute. (2022). The total amount of direct documented damage to infrastructure is $110.4 billion, the minimum needs for the restoration of destroyed assets have increased to $188 billion. Retrieved from https://kse.ua/ua/about-the-school/news/zagalna-suma-pryamih-zadokumentovanih-zbitkiv-infrastrukturi-skladaye-110-4-mlrd-minimalni-potrebi-u-vidnovlenni-zruynovanih-aktiviv-zrosli-do-188-mlrd/ [in Ukrainian].
2. State Employment Service of Ukraine. (2022). The situation on the labor market and the activities of the State Employment Service in January-July 2022. Retrieved from https://www.dcz.gov.ua/sites/default/files/infofiles/06_sytuaciya_na_rp_ta_diyalnist_dsz_2022_pdf [in Ukrainian].
3. Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. (2021). On approval of the Concept of the State Targeted Social Program for the Development of Vocational (Vocational and Technical) Education for 2022-2027 (Decree No. 1619-р, December 9). Retrieved from https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1619-2021-%D1%80#Text [in Ukrainian].
4. Radkevych, V. (2017). Scientific basis of domestic professional education prestige improving. Professional pedagogy, 13, 5–14. Retrieved from http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Nvipto_2017_13_3 [in Ukrainian].
5. Opanasenko, V. P., & Chornobai, B. V. (2021). Trends and prospects for the development of vocational (vocational and technical) education in the conditions of its reform. The development of pedagogical skill of the future teacher in the conditions of educational transformations, Proceedings of the All-Ukrainian Scientific and Practical Conference. Gluhiv. Retrieved from http://tpgnpu.ho.ua/images/my_images/doc_pdf/vidavnictvo/2021/tezi_konf_02-04-2021.pdf#page=127 [in Ukrainian].
6. Yershova, L. (2019). Technologies for motivating students of vocational (vocational and technical) education institutions to develop a professional career. Scientific and methodical provision of professional education and training, Proceedings of the 13th All-Ukrainian Scientific and Practical Conference. Kyiv. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Yurii-Moseichuk/publication/337163073_METODICNI_TA_PRAKTICNI_ZASADI_ZBAGACENNA_PRAKTICNOGO_DOSVIDU_FORMUVANNA_KULTURI_ZDOROV’A_U_MAJBUTNIH_UCITELIV_FIZICNOI_KULTURI_ZASOBAMI_TRENINGU/links/5dc951f5a6fdcc57503e6bf7/METODICNI-TA-PRAKTICNI-ZASADI-ZBAGACENNA-PRAKTICNOGO-DOSVIDU-FORMUVANNA-KULTURI-ZDOROVA-U-MAJBUTNIH-UCITELIV-FIZICNOI-KULTURI-ZASOBAMI-TRENINGU.pdf#page=109 [in Ukrainian].
7. Romanenko, Ye. (2022). State policy in the field of vocational (vocation and technical) education development in the conditions of the war and post-war periods. Current issues in modern science, 2(2), 15–25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.52058/2786-6300-2022-2(2)-15-25 [in Ukrainian].
8. Nazarenko, N. (2020). Employment of young people with vocational education in the labor market. Bulletin of ONU named after I. I. Mechnikov, 25(4), 78–84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32782/2304-0920/4-83-13 [in Ukrainian].
9. Siryy, E. (2020). Education, Educational Orientations and Vocational Training of Ukrainian Young People against the Background of European Integration: Statistical and Sociological Dimensions. International Relations: Theory and Practical Aspects, 5, 247–265. Retrieved from http://international-relations.knukim.edu.ua/article/download/203718/203457/456969 [in Ukrainian].
10. State Statistics Service of Ukraine.(2022). General secondary and vocational (vocational and technical) education in Ukraine in 2020. Retrieved from https://www.ukrstat.gov.ua/operativ/operativ2021/osv/osv_rik/zcpho_Ukr_2020.xls [in Ukrainian].
11. Cedefop. (n. d.). IVET students as % of all upper secondary students in EU27. Retrieved from https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/tools/key-indicators-on-vet/countries?country=EU27&country2=#1.
12. Cedefop. (n. d.). Key indicators on VET : Data visualizations. IVET students as % of all upper secondary students. Retrieved from https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/tools/key-indicators-on-vet/indicators#2.
13. Cedefop. (2020). Inventory of lifelong guidance systems and practices – Serbia. Careers Net national records. Retrieved from https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/inventory-lifelong-guidance-systems-and-practices-serbia.
14. Spletišče Moja izbira. (n. d.). Retrieved from https://mojaizbira.si/onas [in Slovenian].
15. Cedefoр. (2021). Vocational education and training in Slovenia: short description. Retrieved from https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/2021-10/4204_en.pdf.
16. NPI. (n. d.). Informační systém o uplatnění absolventů škol na trhu prácе. Retrieved from https://www.infoabsolvent.cz/ [in Czech].
17. Kaňáková, M., Czesaná, V., & Šímová, Z. (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe – Czech Republic. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018. Retrieved from http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Czech_Republic_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf.
18. Cedefop (2020). Vocational education and training in Croatia: short description. Luxembourg : Publications Office of the European Union. Retrieved from http://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2801/121008.
19. Department of Education and Science of the Rivne Regional State Administration. (2022). The institution of vocational (vocational and technical) education should focus on making the graduate popular in the market and… happy. Retrieved from https://www.rvosvita.org.ua/news/zaklad-profesiynoi-profesiyno-tekhnichnoi-osvit-maie-oriientuvatysia-
na-te-shchob-zrobyty-svoiu-vypusknyka-zatrebuvanym-na-rynku-ta-shchaslyvym [in Ukrainian].
20. Innovative experiment “Professional orientation at NUS”. (n. d.). Retrieved from https://kariera.in.ua/uk/courseware/?lecture=31903&module=5673#!735 [in Ukrainian].
21. SSI “Institute of Educational Analytics”. (2022). Education of Ukraine under martial law. Kyiv. Retrieved from https://iea.gov.ua/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/education-of-ukraine_2022.pdf [in Ukrainian].
22. Koroliuk, O. (2022). What to study to rebuild the country: 10 professions and where to learn them in Ukrainian educational institutions. Retrieved from https://platform.man.gov.ua/media/82a54e6e-8a04-4bd9-b8ea-3e8492e5b061 [in Ukrainian].
23. Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. (2022). Recovery Plan – Education and Science. Retrieved from https://mon.gov.ua/storage/app/media/gromadske-obgovorennya/2022/08/19/HO.proyekt.Planu.vidnovl.Osv.i.nauky-19.08.2022.pdf [in Ukrainian].
24. Cedefop. (2017). Cedefop European public opinion survey on vocational education and training. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2801/575587.